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How Culture Is Imagined

Updated: Sep 13, 2023

As a "Third-Culture-Kid", I've had the opportunity to learn and experience many different cultures, having been born in one country (Singapore), carrying a passport from another country (Thailand), and inheriting ethnic ancestry from yet another (India). I've also lived as a young adult in a Western country such as Australia and visited several others.

This has influenced my observations of humanity, namely the similarities, and differences. I've thought a lot about cultural traditions and social programming, arriving at the thought of what is really true, what we are taught to believe, or what we choose to believe. What holds a group of people in a nation together? How are these things decided upon, and what value do they hold individually and collectively?

Culture, a complex and multifaceted concept, forms the foundation of societies worldwide. It encompasses the shared beliefs, customs, values, traditions, and behaviors that shape the identity of a group of individuals. While culture is experienced and lived by people every day, it is crucial to understand that culture itself is an imagined construct—an intangible phenomenon created and sustained by human imagination. In this blog post, I will delve into the notion of how culture is imagined, exploring the various elements that contribute to its formation and perpetuation.

The Human Imagination:

At the core of cultural imagination lies the human capacity to create and envision concepts beyond immediate reality. It is through the collective imagination of individuals within a society that cultural narratives, symbols, and traditions take shape. By creating shared meanings, humans collectively construct the framework of culture, giving rise to a collective identity and a sense of belonging.

Consider the indigenous cultures of the Americas, where myths and legends have been passed down through generations. The imagination of these communities creates intricate narratives of gods, heroes, and spirits that embody their beliefs and explain natural phenomena. From the stories of the Mayan Popol Vuh to the oral traditions of Native American tribes, the human imagination breathes life into cultural narratives.

"Popol Vuh", Considered “the bible of the Maya”.


Language plays a pivotal role in imagining culture. Through the use of symbols, words, and expressions, individuals convey and interpret meaning, allowing for the transmission and preservation of cultural knowledge. Language, as a vehicle for cultural imagination, enables the formation of shared stories, myths, and legends that shape the collective understanding of a society's values, history, and aspirations.

Languages are not just tools for communication; they carry the essence of cultural imagination. For instance, in Japan, the concept of "Mono no aware" encapsulates a deep appreciation for the impermanence of things. The phrase, which translates to "the pathos of things," conveys a uniquely Japanese sentiment and reflects their cultural understanding of transience and beauty.

Katsushika Hokusai, Fuji from Gotenyama at Shinagawa on the Tōkaidō, from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji, ca. 1830–32. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

Tradition and Ritual:

Traditions and rituals are essential to cultural imagination, serving as tangible expressions of shared beliefs and values. They provide a framework for individuals to connect with their cultural heritage and strengthen social bonds within a community. Whether it is a religious ceremony, a festive celebration, or a customary practice, traditions and rituals manifest the imagined aspects of culture, reinforcing its existence in people's lives.

In India, the festival of Diwali illuminates the power of tradition and ritual in cultural imagination. The lighting of lamps, bursting of fireworks, and exchange of sweets during this festival symbolize the triumph of light over darkness and the victory of good over evil. These practices connect individuals to their cultural heritage, forging a sense of unity and shared values.

Diwali Candles. Credit: Rawf8 -

Art, Literature, and Media:

Artistic expressions, literature, and media serve as powerful tools for cultural imagination. They offer a creative outlet for individuals to depict and explore their cultural identities, societal values, and historical narratives. Through literature, music, visual arts, films, and other media forms, cultural creators shape the collective consciousness, reinforcing or challenging existing cultural norms and perceptions.

Literature, art, and media play a significant role in shaping cultural imaginings. Take the works of Colombian author Gabriel García Márquez, whose magical realism novels like "One Hundred Years of Solitude" transport readers to a world where reality and fantasy intertwine. Márquez's writing reflects the cultural imagination of Latin America, blending history, myth, and the every day to create a vivid tapestry of storytelling.

Social Institutions:

Social institutions such as family, education, religion, and government contribute significantly to the imagined culture. These institutions provide a structured framework that fosters the transmission of cultural values, socialization, and the maintenance of cultural practices. They create a collective belief system and shared expectations that guide individuals' behaviors and shape the larger cultural landscape.

Religion often serves as a powerful source of cultural imagination. In the case of the Maasai people of East Africa, their social institutions are deeply intertwined with their spiritual beliefs. The initiation ceremonies and rituals of the Maasai warrior warriors, for example, create a rite of passage that connects individuals to their cultural roots and fosters a sense of community.

Eunoto, a Maasai ceremony – A Kenyan tribe's traditional coming-of-age ceremony for young warriors. Photograph: Thomas Mukoya/Reuters.

Globalization and Hybridization:

In an increasingly interconnected world, cultures are constantly exposed to external influences and undergo processes of hybridization. Globalization facilitates the exchange of ideas, values, and practices between different cultures, leading to the evolution and transformation of cultural imagination. The fusion of diverse cultural elements often gives rise to new forms of expression, challenging traditional boundaries and expanding the horizons of imagination.

The impact of globalization on cultural imagination can be seen in the fusion of diverse elements. Consider the rise of K-pop (Korean pop music), which has gained global popularity. It blends Korean cultural aesthetics, fashion, and music with Western influences, creating a hybrid cultural expression that captivates audiences worldwide. This showcases how cultural imagination evolves and adapts in an interconnected world.

Boy band ENHYPEN performing at Blue Square on April 26, 2021 in Seoul, South Korea. The Chosunilbo JNS/ImaZinS Editorial/ImaZins/Getty Images


Culture, as an imagined construct, is a testament to the immense creative capacity of human beings. It is through the collective imagination, language, traditions, artistic expressions, social institutions, and the dynamic forces of globalization that cultures are imagined and sustained. Recognizing the imagined nature of culture invites us to appreciate the diversity of human experiences, question the boundaries of our own cultural imaginings, and foster intercultural dialogue that enriches our shared understanding of the world. Humans are beautiful in their diversity.

I feel that reflection on our belief systems is necessary to have more conscious thoughts and choices as to what we believe and why. Culture can be grown and changed, or it can be upheld with its traditions carried on. The choice is up to you.

- Karma.

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